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The Catholic Church has influenced Western philosophy, culture, science, and art.The Catholic Church shared communion with the Eastern Orthodox Church until the East–West Schism in 1054, disputing particularly the authority of the Pope, as well as with the Oriental Orthodox churches prior to the Chalcedonian schism in 451 over differences in Christology.

Canon law concerns the Catholic Church's life and organisation and is distinct from civil law.

Most religious institutes only have male or female members but some have both.

Additionally, lay members aid many liturgical functions during worship services. The Catholic Church holds that Christ instituted the papacy upon giving the keys of Heaven to Saint Peter.

His ecclesiastical jurisdiction is called the "Holy See" (Sancta Sedes in Latin), or the "Apostolic See" (meaning the see of the apostle Peter).

a small city-state entirely enclaved within the city of Rome, which is an entity distinct from the Holy See.