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FALL OF SOOMRAS AND SAMMA - DELHI CONFLICT, j (1351- 1368 A. Skin floats and nets for fishing, would probably have come a little later. • No other Ear.y or Middle Stone Age site was known in the Indian Sub-Conti- nent until resent report of Fairservis, Agarwal and Kusumgar, pp. Fairservis, Roots of Ancient India, New York, 1971, p. Professor Rauf has located a number of stone Age Sites in Khadeji, Mol, Jerrando, Thadho and Wattenwari ** PLEISTOCENE Pfi Rl QD IN SIND (THE STONE AGE) 11 which places only one site in Sind near Jherrick in the Middle Stone Age. These explorations were done in 1950 by Fairservis. The considerable time lag of food pro- ducing revolution between the Middle- East, Iran, Baluchistan and "Sind is not reconciliable and further explorations are necessary. The start of New Stone Age is recogniz- able by a type of tool called Microlith i.e. Adequate work has not been done in Sind, though surface collections from a number of sites in Karachi District and in the vicinity of Hyderabad, show -the existence of Mesolithic hunting- and food gathering communities in Sind, probably to much later date. : The exact start of this age in Sind is not known. The date of transition from Mesolithic to Neolithic is not known for Sind yet. * ' • ■ v PLEISTOCENE PERIOD IN SIND (t HB STONE AGE) 15 Tho earliest city in the Middle East was Jericho (8000-6000 B. Mehtab Rashdi for taking keen interest in pushing through the finalization of book in shortest time, «ince her taking over as the director Institute of Sindhology. It was prob- ably during this time that crude raft boats and fishing hooks were evolved. It could belong to the Middle Stone Age or be even earlier as it has not been given Radio carbon testing. In this case, bone and charcoal found are not given Radio-carbon state and, therefore, it has not be^n dated properly. asses, sheep, goats and oxen were domesticated and houses of mud brick or hard packed clay (Odikey) were constructed. Accord- ing to Ross, there is no evidence of the presence or domestication of horse, but semi-ass was probably domesticated. The best Microlithic tools were found in South India (Kandivili and Wadi Kanama). Man probably lived in bush-wood huts and some times rubble masonry structures covered with bush-wood. The oldest Maize came from Peubla (Mexico) dating 5000 B. • - PUBLISHER'S NOTE Institute of Sindhology is engaged in publishing informative material on Sind under its scheme of "Documentation, Information and Source material on Sind". of Copies 2000 40 0-0 Pric e ^Pt&AW&Q Printed at Educational Press Dr. Published By Institute of Sindhlogy, University of Sind Jamshoro, in collabortion with Academy of letters Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education Islamabad.

Principal tools were scrapers of flakes together with other flake tools and core. meat v cut by slicing slabs was cooked in lined roasting pits like Tandur of to-day. Cooking was done in lined (stone or mud) roasting pits. 21, 25 and 28, he states that sheep was the earliest known domesticated animal in 8900 B. Cattle, pigs, etc., came slightly later in the Nor- thern Iraq. CHRONOLOGICA DICTIONARY OF SIND CHRONOLOGIAL DICTIONARY OF SIND ■ (From Geological Times to 1539 A. Panhwar ■ ■ Institute of Sindhology University of Sind, Jamshoro Sind-Pakistan All rights reserved. \ 108 114 123 127 136 144 159 * • 177 184 207 s S XXVI - r ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks are due to the following individuals and organizations, for their kind permission to make use of their personal and official libraries, collec- tions of photographs, museum objects, and for their periodic comments on this work, while it was kindly being serialized over a long period of 8 years by Syed Ghulam Mustafa Shah in his esteemed Journal, Sind Quarterly; to Muhammad Ishtiaq Khan, Director, Archaeology, Government of Pakistan, for permission to reproduce photographs from their various published works; to Mr. Rafique Mughal, whose scholarly work established for the first time that the Indus Civilization and Culture consisted of Early, Mature and Declining phases, embracing periods from Amri to Jhangar, enering a total of about 2500 years; to Mr. Israr of Screeno for the design of the cover, to Mr. Finding of Early Stone Age tools from the Luni river near Nagar Parker raises an interesting question of types of tools used in Sind and Punjab then, which now lie buried many feet under the ground. 9000 years back, the sea coast must have been north of Hyderabad, and possibly near Hala. Advanced civilization arose along the Nile in Egypt and in Mesopotamia along the Tigris and the Euphrates. : Domestication of dogs in the Sub-Con- tinent including Sind. Sonia Cole, Neolithic Revolution, British Museum, 1970, pp. Baig, librarian, Department of Archaeology, Pakistan, to lend me a large number of books for reference; to Dr. Khan for going through the manuscript, getting it retyped and correc- ted; to draughtsmen Zaheer and Aslam, for wroking more than 6 years to produce 150 maps and charts, of which 60 are reproduced here; to Late Syed Hassamuddin Rashdi for pointing out some important new sources; to Dr Riazul-Islam for allowing me to make use of his important material on Samma period of Sind; to Muhammad Aijaz Sidiqi for reading proof of the text and of the maps reproduced herein; to Muhammad Ibrahim Joyo for reading through and setting the text in order for the press and also for reading proof of its first 48 pages; to Mr. This was the period of great hand axe culture in the Old World; but substan- tial material has not betn discovered in the Sub-Continent. SEA LEVEL CHANGES IN THE MIDDLE AND LATE STONE AGES IN SIND 100,000 years B. to date: The Sea level rise in relation to present level in meters during the period has been as under: — rapidly as one moves to south-west or south-east from the Punjab i.e. This isoue has been examined in details under sea eve! Early stone age tools definitely classified from Soan are: Chopping tools, hand-axes and cleaver as shown by de Terra and Paterson. The Messrs Hunting in the Report of Mohenjo-daro state that the sea level rose to present Multan by about 1 1, 500 years B. The stone did not appear to have originated from the Western Hills of Sind.