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They have an obvious and immediate interest in the outcome of the process.These tactics are typically combined in some form, creating a few "forfeit" seats for packed voters of one type in order to secure more seats and greater representation for voters of another type.The predominantly Democratic city of Salt Lake City was connected to predominantly Republican eastern and southern Utah through a thin sliver of land running through Utah County. In 2011, the legislature created new congressional districts that combined conservative rural areas with more urban areas to dilute Democratic votes.

Nevertheless, the -mander suffix has been applied to particular malapportionments.The district was redrawn after the 2010 census by California's non-partisan commission and no longer follows these boundaries. The urban (and mostly liberal Democratic) concentration of Columbus, Ohio, located at the center of the map in Franklin County, is split into thirds, each segment attached to—and outnumbered by—largely conservative suburbs that vote Republican.Bi-partisan incumbent gerrymandering produced California District 38, home to Grace Napolitano, a Democrat, who ran unopposed in 2004.These include the 1852 "Henry-mandering", "Jerrymander" (referring to California Governor Jerry Brown), Most notably, gerrymandering is particularly effective in non-proportional systems that tend towards fewer parties, such as first past the post.In proportional-election systems, where political parties are represented in proportion to the total numbers of votes they receive, gerrymandering has little or less significance.