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I’ve been working on this for several days, and the more I look, the more I see evidence of a real problem with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), the technique used at all of these sites to estimate the age of the deposits. here], the primary assumption underpinning OSL age estimates is this: each individual quartz grain removed from the archaeological deposits MUST have been exposed to sunlight for long enough to have released any free electrons trapped in its crystal lattice.

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Analysis of 14 proximal ulnar dimensions compared to morphological properties of African archaic humans, and Levantine Mousterian, archaic European humans, west Asian and, European Upper Paleolithic, African Epipaleolithic and recent modern human also of recent African descent suggest an archaic total morphological pattern for the KRM specimens.One hypothesis has that population bottlenecks occurred due to environmental circumstances [as yet unrecorded], after which cultural achievements of the modern populations were stultified, only to reappear some 30,000 years later, at which time the archaeology records the rapid spread of modern humans throughout what’s been called the Old World.In July of this year we saw a report from Border Cave of a modern human archaeological assemblage that dates to about 44 ka, a result in accord with the beginning of modern human behaviour in Eurasia."MSA-associated humans from KRM may not be as modern as has been claimed from the craniofacial material" There is a 20 metres (66 ft) thick accumulation of deposits, both inside the caves and outside against the cliff face, proving that Klasies River Mouth people knew how to hunt small game, fish (later), gather plants and roots, cook There is a marked difference between the Paleolithic stone technology used in the earliest layers from 125,000 years ago, and the superior MST blades of the 70,000-year-old Howiesons Poort period that used raw material which had been 'mined' 20 kilometres inland.There is also a differentiation between the Paleolithic food detritus that accumulated underfoot inside the caves 125,000 years ago and the ejection of such detritus from the cave into external middens by the occupants of ca.