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In Indian constitution the powers of state and centre are clearly defined and there are very clear limits of both the centre and the state for law making powers. The State List consists of 66 subjects of local interest such as Public Health, Police etc.

The Concurrent List has 47 subjects important to both the Union and the State such as Electricity, Trade Union, Economic and Social Planning, etc.

The question whether the Indian Constitution could be called a federal constitution troubled the minds of the members of the Constituent Assembly.

Art 155 and 156 provide that the Governor, who is the constitutional head of a State, is to be appointed by the President and stays only until the pleasure of the President The Centre may take over the administration of the State on the recommendations of the Governor or otherwise.

This enables the Union government to exercise control over the State administration.

The equality of units in a federation is best guaranteed by their equal representation in the Uppers House of the federal legislature (Parliament).

The federal polity, in other words, provides a constitutional device for bringing unity in diversity and for the achievement of common national goals. A federal government exists when the powers of the government for a community are divided substantially according to a principle that there is a single independent authority for the whole area in respect of some matters and there are independent regional authorities for other matters, each set of authorities being co-ordinate to and subordinate to the others within its own sphere.

The Constitution of India has adopted federal features; though it does not, in fact, claim that it establishes a federation.