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Other changes in the brain have been documented in the research, which further substantiates the case for the significance of neuroplasticity.

Mahmoudi and Sanchez (2011), using new technology, discovered the brain’s environment changed depending on the types of neural signals it experienced.

One could suggest then, that a decrease in GMV will result in a decrease of white matter volume (WMV), since WM cannot exist without GM.

In another study by Choi, Jeong, Rohan, Polcari, and Teicher (2009), it was reported that a significant decrease of WM in three regions of the brain was the result of parental verbal abuse (PVA).

Moreover, as the literature below outlines, the development of WM in the brain has a large effect on the behavior of adolescents.

They found that the brain is capable of understanding that certain information is more important than other information, as it will have a higher chance of leading to a positive reinforcement reward.

These neural connections are the WM, which consists of Myelin. This Myelin sheath expedites communication between neurons, which is significant to intelligence, as well as cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and motor development (Barnea-Goraly et al., 2005; Blakemore & Choudhury, 2006; Fields, 2008; Zoltan, Westerberg, & Klingberg, 2004).

It is expected that neuronal transmission speed continue to increase throughout adolescence and reaches the outer limits of the frontal cortex (i.e. The frontal cortex is the control center for motor functions, higher order functions, planning, reasoning, judgment, impulse control, and memory (Andrzejewski et al., 2011; Bailey, 2013).

Maturation of brain white matter pathways is an important factor in cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and motor development during childhood and adolescence (Barnea-Goraly et al., 2005).

Because research demonstrates that harsh corporal punishment (HCP) and parental verbal abuse (PVA) is detrimental in the development of grey and white matter volume among children and adolescents, we intend to examine whether positive parental reinforcement (PPR) will have a progressive influence on the development of white matter (WM) pathways in the brain of adolescents within the United States of America.